Plain Sideboard with Pedestal and Full-length Shelf.

The sideboard design (Figs. 119 to 121) affords opportunity for variation in the treatment of details to suit individual requirements, and would look well if executed in wainscot oak, birch, or Italian walnut. If made according to the directions about to be given, a very substantial and handsome piece of furniture will result. The back is made movable for convenience of packing, The principal dimensions are : Height over all. 8 ft. 5J in. ; width of body. 4 ft. 4 in. ; depth, 1 ft. 9 in. ; top, with flaps, 6 ft. 3$ in. by 1 ft. 10$ in. ; shelf, 4 ft. t> in. by 10$ in. ; pedestal. 3 ft. <>| in. high. Fig. 111» shows the front elevation, Fig. 120 the end elevation, and Fig. 121 the general plan ; the half a being above the top, and showing the Hap r»is«l, and the half b below the top, being sectional. Fig. 122 shows a horizontal section in two height* drawn to • larger scale, the half section a being taken through the lockers, and the half-fwetion n being taken through the drawers. Figs. 123 and 124 show the complete vertical section, broken, however, in order to economise space ; as all dimensions are marked, no difficulty will be experienced in netting out a full-sized drawing.

Variations.—The top is shown wrought »olid, chamfered, and carved in low relief, with a tongue moulding ; this necessitates a special and somewhat difficult joint for the flaps, so that the appearance of the top may be the same whether the iLip« are up or down ; a joint easier to make, though not so well in keeping with the design, would be the common rule joint, with a half-round worked on the edge of the top. The top and Haps, for the sake of economy, might be built up with a J-in. top, glued and blocked to J-in. by 3-in. marginal picces mitcred at the angles. The brackets for the flaps also might be hinged with brass butts in place of the wood hinge to be desenbed. The panel under the shelf might be replaced either by painted tiles or by silvered glass, in which case the framing would have to be relmted instead of being ploughed as shown. The joints of the door panels might be placed diagonally instead of vertically, and flat, chamfers might be substituted for the hollows on the standards, if these are found too difficult to work.

Working Drawings.—Begin by making full-

size drawings of the sections shown by Figs. 122, 123, and 124, of course not employing broken lines. It will be found best to make two separate horizontal sections, repeating the drawings on each side of the centre line shown in Fig. 122. The dotted line in the half-plan marked a indicates the top front mil shown in section at u (Fig. 123). The dotted lines in b half are the drawer runners and division rails (see also Fig. 123). Figs. 123 and 124 will be drawn in line with each other, Fig. 123 above Fig. 124, at the proper distance apart, according to dimensions given ; and it will l>e advisable to make horizontal sections through the frieze rail e e. the mirror liack f r. and the framed panel between the shelf and cupboard

top G G. This done, take off the quantities of stuff required; the cutting list of these on p. 33 will probably be found useful, as indicating the necessary allowances for preparing; the dimensions given are the rough sizes, the finished sizes being obtained from the drawings, and carefully worked to in planing. It will be found, in some instances, that the rough size is very nearly the finished size ; this occurs in unimportant places, where a shaving more or less is of no consequence, as in the back panels, etc., where to use the next size of stuff would require much labour in reducing it to dimensions.

Cutting List.—The following is a list of the stuff required to construct the sideboard as measured from the setting out,

Figs. 119 to 121.—Front and End Elevattabi and Plan of Plain Sideboard with PodMtal and Full-length Shelf.

sufficient substance being allowed for cleaning up to the finished sizes


Back— Cornice Do. breaks Do. backing Standards Frieze .. Neck moulding Shelf .. .. Guard bead ..

Mirror Back— Rails .. Stiles Muntins Panels .. Glass fillet

Shelf Panel— Stiles Rails

Panel .. Brackets Mirror ..

Table Tops— Centre .. . Flaps .. . Brackets Da fillets

Pedestal— Standards

  1. Top rails Bottom do. Top partition
  2. .. Bottom do.
  3. End panels Front rail

Doors— Stiles Top rails Bottom do. Panels .. Stops ..

Back— 8tiles Top rail Bottom do. Xuntin Panels ..

it i


21 1


Do. Pine

Deal Do.

Wainscot Do. Do. Do. Brit, plate

Wainscot Do. Do. Do.

Wainscot Do.


Caraute— Solid bottom..

Drawer runners Do.

Dust boards .. Drawer front Do. sides Do. backs Do. bottoms Do. blocking Buttons



2 j 0







2} 0




2j 0




5 0




5 0




10 1




0* 0









3 !



0" 1




ft 0


10 0



Fittings.—Two 2j-in. brass lever locks ; four pairs of 2|-in. brass butts and plates; two door pulls, medi&val. to pattern; four drawer handles to pattern.

Preparing Stuff.—The stuff being cut out, plane up the best sides and edges, straight, square, and out of winding. When all is faced, set gauges to the various thicknesses and widths, and reduce each piece to the requisite finished sizes, marking each, as finished, with its appropriate name. If the stuff has to be left unfinished at any time, carefully pack the pieces together and weight them, or fasten them down with liandscrews, to prevent warping. Pick the stuff for figure, try to balance the grain, and keep points of figure upwards. Joint up the partitions, dust boards, drawer bottoms, panels, etc., ploughing and tonguing the joints where possible.

Setting Out.—Assuming the stuff all prepared, begin to set out the carcase. Take a front standard or leg and lay it on the rod upon the vertical section drawn from Figs. 123 and 124, in the position it will occupy when framed. Square up the top line, floor line, width of end rail, thickness of front rail m. the two drawer divisions, and the bottom end rail, remembering that the end and front lines go upon the adjacent inside ¿ices. Square up also the chamfer stops and the V-chases at top and bottom. Mark over the mortices for the rails—these will be kept J in. within the sight lines, and J in. wide for top rail— and a 3-in. mortice in centre of width and be wedged at the back. The top front rail will be dovetailed in after the ends are framed up, as shown in isometric

  1. 120.—Top End of Front Standard of Sideboard.
  2. 123 and 124.—Vertical Section of Sideboard, showing Locker, Back, Drawer, etc.
  3. 120.—Top End of Front Standard of Sideboard.

be used for the bottom rail. Cut in the mortices in the back standards, which may be 1J in. deep, and may go through

Fig. 124.

  1. 123 and 124.—Vertical Section of Sideboard, showing Locker, Back, Drawer, etc.
  2. 122.—Horixontal 8ection through 8ideboard.

of rail for the bottom one. It will be noticed that the top rails are only J in. thick, while the bottom rails are If in., the same thickness 9 as back standards; this is to provide room at the top for the flap brackets to fold back out of sight, therefore different gauging will be required. A TV'n. tenon should be used at top. Gauge from' the outer or face side so that the face of the rail stands full | in* from the face of the standard. A J-in. tenon kept in the centre of the standard can

Fig. 123

view by Fig. 125. The lettering signifies : —e r, end rail; f r, front rail; q, button ; u. bracket. The two division rails at bottom will have f-in. mortices in centre of thickness of standard 1 in. deep; these mortices should taper so that the tenon tightens as it is driven in. This first standard being now completely set out, pair the others with it and strike the lines over where required—namely, face and end lines on the other front standard, and end lines only on the two back standards; all the lines should be struck over in pencil. Make a wood gauge, and line in the chamfers

Fig«. 126 and 127.—Sections through Sideboard Back and Front Standards respectively, on Lines H H and J J (Fig. 123, p. 34).

by J-in. grooves for the panels J in. on for the buttons (see Fig. 125). Chamfer the bottom rails f in. by } in.; gauge a J-in. by J-in. rebate on the top insde edge, and a J-in. by J-in. groove at the bottom edge to receive the divisions. See Fig. 129, which is a cross-section through the bottom

Fig«. 126 and 127.—Sections through Sideboard Back and Front Standards respectively, on Lines H H and J J (Fig. 123, p. 34).

as shown by details (Figs. 12«», 127. and 12rt); then set a fine tooth gauge and run it down the face of the panel groove ; this will be 1 in. from end faces. Gauge }«in. bv {•in. rebates on the back standards to receive the framed back, stopping the rebate If in. from the floor line. Set out the end rails from the section (Fig. 122), allowing for lj-in. tenons at the front ends, and 1 J-in. at the back. These tenons should have square shoulders. The top rail should be set back } in. full from the face of the standard, so use a {•in. slip with the gauge. Gauge ¿-in.

Fig. 128.—Details of Sideboard Top Standard.


Fig. 128.—Details of Sideboard Top Standard.

rail, as seen from the back of the case, the section being taken on the line k k (Fig. 122); Fig. 129 is one-quarter full size. Having shot the front edge of the top partition straight, lay it on a front standard, and square over the sight lines of the top rail and the bottom of the cup-board. Allow jV in. at the ljottom end for the housing (see Fig. 130, which is an isometric view of the drawer rails and partitions, one-quarter full size), and J in. full at the top end in order to finish flush with the top side of the top rail into which the standard will be jointed with j-in. tenons. Gauge a J-in. by J-in. groove, 1} in. from the front edge on each side for the door-stops, line in the chamfers, and square over the length. The lower partition requires simply gauging to width, and squaring over to the sight lines between the two bottoms, an allowance of fV in. being made at each end for the housing. A small flute is worked on the front

Fig. 129.—8ection on Line K K (Fig. 122, p. 34) showing Foot of Front Standard, Bail, Framed Bottom, etc., of 8iAeboard.

edge, as shown in Fig. 119. The grain should run with that of the top partition.

Cupboard Doors.—The doors will next claim attention. Set out the stiles from the vertical section (Fig. 123), working from the sight lines of the rails. Mark over two lines for the top rail, one for the springing, and one for the crown, the mortice being kept in line with this, to avoid the sunk ring in the corner; a J-in. mortice will be made, $ in. from the face ; this will allow for the panels a TVin. groove without stopping. The width of the top mortice should be 1£ in., and that of the bottom one 1} in. Set off the chamfers, pair the stiles, and strike over the remainder of the lines. The lengths of the rails will be found from the horizontal section (Fig. 122). All the shoulders should be square, as the chamfers are stopped;

gauge the tenons and the face lines of the ploughed grooves; the top rails cannot be so gauged at this stage, as they are not yet shaped. After the tenons and shoulders are cut and fitted, the sweep may be struck on the bench by means of a rod and bradawl. First set a radius of 2 ft. 3 in., then strike intersecting arcs from the corners of the rail, and, from the point of intersection as a centre, describe the curve; work the edges, and plough the ring, but do not cut it until after wedging up. The panels should be matched and chamfered (the two outside boards being left square), then glued up and set out from the framing, and the tongue worked all round. A piece i in. by 2 in. long will have to be glued on each top corner, and the board left square at the top end to serve as a bottom for the corner sinking, and the ploughed groove will be made correspondingly deeper.

Pedestal Back, Centre Partition, etc.— The pedestal back will be set out in a similar manner. The vertical pieces should be mortised, and the horizontal rails tenoned through them; the muntin being stub-tenoned into the rails. In this case the best side will be inside. The panels should be flush inside, and rebated and chamfered all round. Set the rails out rather full, so as to have enough stuff to make a tight fit after the carcase is glued up. The bottom of the cupboard should be laid face side up on the rod, the insides of the front standards squared up, and the centre partition marked. It will be noted in the table of quantities (p. 33) that the oak edging is longer than the deal; this is to allow for 1-in. tenons in the standards, the deal being rebated into the rails J in., as shown in Fig. 129. Make due allowance for the rail, setting back I in. (see Fig. 122). Stop the housings | in. from the front edge, as shown in Fig. 130. In gauging the tenons, use a ¿-in. slip, as the bottom sets back that distance. Set out the framed bottom from this, the cross-rails or runners from the section (Fig. 124), and the dust-boards from the framing. The rails need not be tenoned longer than J in.—the depth of the ploughed groove. The middle runner is a double one, and is grooved to receive the partition.

Setting Out Drawers.—This may now be dealt with, though it would be ad-visable in actual work to leave the setting out until the carcase is put together. Shoot the fronts 1,t in. wider than the finished size ; square them to length between the partition and the standard; set back the thickness of the sides, and *quarc the lines over on to the worse side. Kun a ¿-in. cutting gauge on the ends; pair the back, and square over. Lay one of the sides on the rod, and square up inside the back and front. The back should be kept J in. clear of the back of the pedestal in order to provide room for a stop. Allow ¿ in. on the front end and $ in. on the back end y (Fig. 129) for dovetails, and square over. Gauge a $-in. groove | in, up from the bottom edges. In setting out the bottom, allow Taff in. extra at each end for a tongue into the sides, and J in. at the front. Gauge the width so as to overhang the back f in., and run a rebate round three sides wide enough to receive the blocking, which must be glued to the aides only, and not to the bottom.

Back.—It is not necessary to repeat the instructions for setting out the framing, aa those that were given for the pedestal will again apply. Bear in mind, however, that the upright pieces will be mortised, and the horizontal ones tenoned. Keep the panel of the mirror back flush on the insde. The shelf panel, which is framed of |-in. stuff with a ■jVin. panel, is set back | in. from the face, and has stopped chamfers wrought all round. This panel need not be rebated, but may be bevelled a* shown in Fig. 123. The lettering in Fig. 129 signifies:—s, standard ; e r, end rail; x, panel; y, solid bottom ; v, framed bottom ; d k, drawer runner; w, drawer bottom ; r, drawer Bide.

Top Standards.—Lay one of the top standards, face upwards, on the height rod, with the lower end projecting 1$ in. beyond the sight line of the top of the pedestal, .tnd square up on the inside edge the sight line» of the top and cornice, also those of the shelf, the groove for the neck moulding, and the stops for the chamfers. Square over on the face the sight lines of the brackets, aud a line f in~ within each to form a stop for the grooves. Square also on the face the sinking for the shelf; the sinkings for the nocking and cornice should bo squared across the facc, and also outside. Pair the other standard with this, and square the lines over. The different sections at the various heights are shown in Figs. 131, 132, and 133, half full size, and they must be gauged accordingly from the face side, sinking the plough grooves and rebates j| in. de.-p. The portion between tho necking and

Fig. ISO.—Part of Sideboard Drawer Kail* and Partitions.

the cornice must be ploughed for the frieze panel, that between the necking and shelf rebated for the mirror, and that between the shelf and the top ploughed with a ¿-in. groove for the shelf panel. A mortice should be cut in the top end in line with the ploughed groove to receive a tenon on the cornice backing, which can be continued right, through and wedged, as it will be covered by the return cornice. The bottom end of the standard will lie rebated back half its thickness, and screwed into the table top. Set out the cornice backing (sec Fig. 134, which is half full size) from the plan, square up the shoulders from the sight lines of the standards, and gauge the tenons from the back, also gauge the rebate shown in Fig. 134. This will complete the setting

Fig. 131.—Section of Sideboard Top Standard on Line E E (Fig. 123, p. 34).

out, the remaining portions being fitted as the work proceeds. All the framed pieces should be glued up first, cleaned off, and set aside till wanted. Glass-paper should not be used inside the cupboards or drawers ; the work should be left smooth from the plane. Next get ready the carcase, prepare the end panels to size, frame the rails together, work the chamfers, and glue up the two ends. Clean off inside, fit the buttons and the front top rail, and glue up. When the work is quite dry, fit on the top, fit in the drawers, and screw in the back. Fit the top and bottom panels in, groove the brackets into the standards, the lower one by a dovetailed groove as shown at Fig. 133, the upper one by screws from the back. When the brackets are in place and the panels in, stand the back on the table and mark the position of the brackets.

Fig. 132.—Section of Sideboard Top Standard on Line F F (Fig. 123, p. 34).

standards to the same. The mouldings, shelf, glass bead, and back can now be fitted, the top buttoned on, the flaps, doors, etc., fitted and hung, the locks and furniture put on, the work cleaned off with fine paper, and taken to pieces for polishing.

Preparing Carcase.—Mortise the standards. The front ones are 1$ in. deep ; the back ones are carried right through, and wedged. All mortices that do not go through should be tapered to the bottom, about in. at each end, so that the tenon will drive in tight. The two fronts will be mortised on the inside face edges with f-in. mortices 1 in. deep. Plough the panel grooves on the inside faces, stopping them at the rail lines; also rebate the back standards on the back side to receive the framing. Cut the tenons on the rails, and plough both; make due allowance for the difference in thickness. Rebate and chamfer

  1. 133.—Section of Sideboard Top Standard on Line GO (Fig. 123, p. 34).
  2. 132.—Section of Sideboard Top Standard on Line F F (Fig. 123, p. 34).

Take them out, and form a dovetailed groove in the table top f in. deep. Glue up the standards and brackets, slide them into position on the top, and screw up the

Fig. 133.—Section of Sideboard Top Standard on Line GO (Fig. 123, p. 34).

the top edge of the bottom rails, and plough the lower edge inside, as shown in Pig. 119. Cut the shoulders, and fit the work together; fit in the panels (which should have been glued up after being chamfered), alternating the grain of the wood for the sake of effect. Glue up the framed bottom with the dust panel flush on the top side, cut the tenons on the front rail, and rebate the ends, leaving a ¿-in. tongue on the top side. House in the partition, stopping the housing f in. from the front edge, as shown in Fig. 130 ; work it ^ in. deep with a router. Work the cupboard bottom in the same manner, except that it will require housing on both sides. Fit in the partitions, and mark them where fitted; then fit the bottoms into the grooves and mortices in the framed ends. Mark the line of the back rebate, and


plan« oil to width (see Fig. 124). The two partitions should be reduced to exactly the name width; the lower one will require nothing else to be done to it. The

Fig. 134.— Section of Sideboard Cornice.

upper one will want ploughing on each side J in. by | in. for the door stops, 1in. from front edge. Cut a {-in. tenon at the top end J in. from the face to go into the top rail. Do not fit the top front rail in until the carcase is glued up, as a dovetail i* required that will be purtly in the rails and partly in the standards. Square • line over on each side of the partition level with the shoulder, and on these set out three lj-in. by J-in. mortices for the buttons (shown in Figs. 123 and 125, p. ■A). When the shoulders are all up and the carcase is true in both directions, knock it to pieces and work the chamfers; nnd when these are finished, cut the stops to the lines with sharp chisels. The top stop is a plain chamfer with the hollow butting square against its bottom; the lover one is a triangular pyramid with the hollow dying down upon it on each side- A cardboard template should be cat to the shape of the foot, and applied •11 mund, the V being cut with a chisel, and the bottom bevelled off with a tenon aw. Scratch in the flute at the bottom, and this will complete the standard. Work the chamfers on the partition, and the flutes on the bottom and division. Clean ■ II off. and glasspaper the insides of the ->t^ndsrds. If they are to be wax-polished they ran now be glued up ; if to be trench-poh-h-d. the face edges of the standards, the edgea of the rails, the end panels, and the sight margins of the partitions •nd divisions should be polished before bring glacl up. The work being ready for gluing up, fit the end panels into the rails, glne the tenons and mortices, enter them, and knock up. Lay the work on the bench out of winding, and cramp it up ; wedge the back standards, and turn a lj-in. screw into the front tenons from the inside. Having glued up both ends, clean off the inside, glue aud nail in the drawer partition, glue tha end tenons and tongues, enter them in their places, and cramp up. Try with a rod for squareness, and brace the work in position; leave the cramps on until dry. Next fit in the top rail, keeping it I in. back from the face of the leg, insert the partition in the housing of the bottom. Glue the tenon and the dovetails, and drive on the top rail; -nail it down at the ends, and wedge the tenon in the centre; put screws through the back edge of tho bottom anglewise into the back standards. When the work is dry, clean off and level the top ready to receive the table.

Table fops and Flaps.—Tho top T (Fig. 130) may be prepared in one piece, the breaks being cut and the moulded edges returned in the solid, but the appearance would be nearly as good and the work would be much easier if the breaks were formed by gluing on separate pieces after the main top was worked and moulded, the joint being made in line with the margin of tho moulding, and the internal angle being mitered as shown at Fig. 124. This method having been decided upon, plane up the top, shoot the back edge, and lay the top on the carcase. Mark a 1-in.

Fig. 1SB. Section through Top of Sideboard.

margin to the face of the standards in front, and a ,Vin. margin at the ends; then cut and shoot to size. Set a cutting gauge to 1 in., and gauge the front edge

Fig. 143

Figs. 142 and 145.—Half Front Elevation, Half Longitudinal Section, and Cross Section of Sideboard Pedestal.

Fig. 142

Fig. 143

Fig. 142

  1. 142 and 145.—Half Front Elevation, Half Longitudinal Section, and Cross Section of Sideboard Pedestal.
  2. 144.—Section of Cupboard of Sideboard Pedestal. f ci

Fig. 144.—Section of Cupboard of Sideboard Pedestal. f ci


r — f 1

Äiif f


- ^ JJ. yj

Fig. 145.—Detail of Door of Sideboard Pedestal

w hH

s dovetail saw through the cuts with the right, grasping the saw about the middle. Turn the front round, square down upon the inside the marks off the pins just made, and cut down with a dovetail saw, leaving the lines showing so that the pins may fit tight. Mark each end in a distinctive manner so as to avoid confusion, and repeat the process at the other end. For the back, put the slip in the side groove, keep it pressed tight against the back and also to the gauge line, and run the saw through the cuts in the same way. Cut down the pins as before, and remove the core with a bow saw and chisel. Having cleaned out the pins and sockets, take a shaving of! tho insides of the drawers, then glue and knock together. Cut the bottoms to size, rebate wide enough to receive the blocking, slot the back for the screw, slip the bottom into the groove, and glue in the blocking, the drawer being first carefully squared. When tho work is dry, clean off the ends of the pins and try the drawers in the openings; they should run easy, yet without any play. A slip J in. by 1 in. will be required at each end to bring the rail up to the thickness of the standard and form a guide for the drawer (see z, Fig. 129). Place stops in tho |'in. space at the back. Keep the drawer fronts in position, and glue and brad these stops to the standard. Screw-in the case-back, work the chamfer round the drawer front, sink in the handles, and clean off ready for polishing.

Fitting Doors.—The doors can next be fitted in. Cut rods to the size each way n[ the openings, transfer these sizes on to the doors, and cut off to the lines. Shoot all the edges, after which the door should fit exactly; but if it is too tight, ease it a little. Rebate the top rail j in., as shown at Fig. 123; let in the butts, the knuckles being allowed to project the thickness of the ornamental plates, which afterwards are screwed on with round-headed screws (see Fig. 127), Place one of the doors in position mark the position of the butts on the standards, set a pair of dividers to the distance of the butt edge from the inside of the door, and scribe down against the stop« of the standard (shown in Fig. 141). Sink the butts into this line, tapering up to nothing at the knuckle, and screw them in. Fit the locks and handles, insert the mirror, brad in the slips, screw up tho back, and the sideboard is complete.

Sideboard Pedestal.

A sideboard pedestal may be constructed in solid wood, as illustrated in Figs. 112 and 143. Generally the same methods might be adopted for veneered work, except that the doors would then be framed up in a manner similar to the end frames, and veneered over all. Briefly described, the construction of the pedestal is as follows. The ends are panelled and moulded frames of 1-in. stuff, mortised aud tenoned together, the panels being flush inside; the back stiles, 3 in. wide, are rebated on the edge to receive the back framing, and the front stiles. 2} in. wide, are tougued on the edge to fit the fluted pilasters, as shown in Fig, 144. The moulding should be fixed with screws from the inside. The pilasters are worked, glued on the edges of the ends, and cut in flush between the top and the plinth mould. The divisions b (Figs. 142 and 144) are of 1-in. deal, tongued to fit the pilasters, and are hollaed ) in. in the bottom, the top edge having three mortices for buttons. The drawer divisions arc housed § in. into the upright divisions, the housings being covered by the pilaster. The framed drawer divisions should have their side rails in oak or other hardwood, the front rails being of wood to match the remainder. The solid division may be of deal, edged with hardwood. The bottom is of J-in. deal, tongued into the plinth mould and also into the end frames. The divisions are grooved into this, ond ure glued and nailed through the plinth mould, which is of 2-in. by 1 J-in. hardwood, glued and blocked to the bottom. Its ends run across the pilasters, and mitre with the return mould, which is glued and screwed to the sides as shown in section in Fig, 142. The top is of 1-in. hardwood, rebated for the back, and overhanging the front and ends by in. It is solid moulded on the top side, and has a planted mould 1 in. by

Fig. 149.—Vertical Section on Centre Line of Sideboard with Carved Panels.

in., glued underneath to add to its apparent thickness. The end pieces of the planted mould are better if put on in short lengths across the grain, to prevent the top splitting when shrinking, and to make the top appear solid. This mould is better if rebated in the framing,

Fig. 100.—Part Horixontal Section of Sideboard on Line A A (Fig. 147, p. 40).

Fig. 161.—Part Horizontal Section through Mirrors, etc.» of Sideboard on Line B B (Fig. 14T, p. 45).

because as it is not glued to the framing it may curl off. A top rail crossing the divisions is notched into them and dovetailed into the ends. The door, having a carved and moulded pediment, requires a wide top rail as a backing, and the best construction is shown in Fig. 145, in which the top rail is mortised and tenoned to the stile, which is rebated on the face, and the rail is lipped across it, thus hiding the joints, which would otherwise interfere with the design. The shoulder of the rebate in the stile is made level with the top edge of the cornice mould, that and the carved pediment being screwed from the back. An easier but inferior method of making the door would be to dispense with the tenons, and simply halve the rail and stile together, gluing them, and fixing with a handscrew until dry; then add a few panel pins on the inside.

The door is bolection moulded, with a in Fig. 144, which is a section on a a (Fig. flush panel inside ; when hung, it is sunk 142), and the stops 8 (Fig. 144) are rc-J in. below the face of the front, as shown bated to receive it. The back is a J-in.

Fig«. 163 and 164.—Part Vertical Section^ through Upper Part of Sideboard.

panelled frame, with 3-in. stiles and mun-tins. Two methods of panelling are shown in Fig. 144. The drawers are dovetailed together in the usual way, and have a small moulding planted on the fronts. The turned feet have square shanks, and are glued and screwed to the bottom.

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