Overmantels And Chimneypieces

Dininjf-room Overmantel.

The overmantel shown in elevation bv Figs. 181 and 182 should be made of oak or of walnut. It has three bevel-edged mirrors, two semicircular brackets shelf, and backing could bo mode of bass-wood, and the remainder of American satin walnut. This bass-wood, or whitewood as it is often called, will require two or more applications of stain to bring it to the same tono as the satin walnut, and

Figs- 181 and 183. —Front and End Elevation« of Dining-room Overmantel

I'fing tixcd immediately below the"side mirrors, and above the glass n narrow «helf t» carried the full length of the overmantel ami supportrd by four carved and fluted pilasters. The cornice projects considerably, the top forming a wide shelf fi^r pottery, etc. Thoroughly well-seasoned timlx-r ibould be used, and if a less expense material i« desired the frame (Fig. 183), if this is carefully attended to, the difference between the two when polished will be scarcely perceptible. Both theae woods bruise rather easily, so that care must be exercised to guard against injury while cramping up the work, etc. In Fig. 183, which is one half the back view, dimensions are given from the centre line. The four stiles are 3J in. by 1} in., while the rails are

2J in. by 1J in., 2 in. by in., and 1£ in. by 1$ in. respectively, all mortised and tenoned together, rebated for the mirrors, and grooved for the wood panels and backing. The details of construction are clearly indicated in the sections (Figs. 184, 185, and 186), Fig. 185 being taken on a b (Fig. 184), and Fig. 186 on c d. The pilasters are attached by screws driven from the back of the stiles, and the shelf is then fixed to the pilasters and also screwed to the rail from the back. Next secure the four straight brackets. Figs. 187 and 188 show sections of the fluting and beads on the pilasters and brackets. The tops of the brackets are covered by a board 4£ in. by J in. by 3 ft. 8 in. long, and from this the cornice springs. The top shelf is sunk

  1. 187.—Fluting on Pilasters.
  2. 188.—Beading on Brackets.
  3. 181.—Carving on Cornice.
  4. 181.—Carving on Cornice.
  5. 192.—Section of Pilaster for Overmantel
Classical Cornice Chair Rail Sections

Fig. 184.—Vertical Cross Section of Overmantel through Fig. 186. Side Mirror.

D Figs. 190 and 191.—Fixing Loose Bead on Overmantel Pilasters.

Fig. 183.—Half Elevation of Overmantel Framework.

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-— - (

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' " \

  1. 185.—Part Horizontal Section of Overmantel on Line A B (Fig. 184).
  2. 184.—Vertical Cross Section of Overmantel through Fig. 186. Side Mirror.

—Part Horizontal Section of Overmantel on Line C D (Fig. 184).

D Figs. 190 and 191.—Fixing Loose Bead on Overmantel Pilasters.

Fig. 183.—Half Elevation of Overmantel Framework.

in a rebate in the top of the cornice, and J in. below the top edge, which serves as a stop to prevent articles sliding off. On the quarter-round ovolo part of the

The pattern is made with hand-carving tools, and machine-carved egg-aud-dart moulding, or dentils, may be intTodncod with good effect. Figs. 190 to l'.>2 show

Fig. 199. Front Elevation of Overmantel with Shelve» and Turned Pillar».

cornice moulding suitable ornamentation m*y be introduced to relieve the uniformity •if to much straight work in the deep ntmii i', the cffect being shown in Fig. 182. A suitable section ia shown in Fig. 189.

the method of securing the small I leadings tliat are mitered round the pilasters. The semicircular brackets are turned from one piece, which is afterwards sawn through lengthways, the ornamentation being formed

Fig. 194. Fig. 195.
  1. 194 and 195.—Side Elevation and Cross Section of Overmantel
  2. 200.—Cross Section of 0 vex mantel on Line B B (Fig. 193).
  3. 197. -Elevation and Half Cross Section of Pillar for Overmantel.
  4. 201. — Horizontal Section of Upper Part of Overmantel on Line D D (Fig. 193).
  5. 198. Fig. 199.
  6. 198 and 199.—Cross Section of Overmantel Shelves at O and P (Fig. 195) respectively.

Fig, 196. End of Overmantel Shelf supported on Pillara.

Fig. 202.—Detail of Moulding on Overmantel at M (Fig. 195).

Fig. 200.—Cross Section of 0 vex mantel on Line B B (Fig. 193).

Fig, 196. End of Overmantel Shelf supported on Pillara.

Fig. 202.—Detail of Moulding on Overmantel at M (Fig. 195).

Fig. 203. Horizontal Section through Overmantel on Line C C (Fig. 193).


Fig. 203. Horizontal Section through Overmantel on Line C C (Fig. 193).

Woodcut Hot Air Balloon

Fig. 200 —Enlarged Section of Over-maul«! Bate on Lin« O O (Fig. 203

  1. 209 —Scroll of Overmantel at Q
  2. l»»J.
  3. 200 —Enlarged Section of Over-maul«! Bate on Lin« O O (Fig. 203
  4. 207. Croaa Fig. 208 —Part of Pillar Support 8ection and Elevation and of Bottom of Overmantel Back of Overmantel Side Iim R. Fig 195;. Finial (aee K. Fig. IN).
  5. 20« —Front and Side EUvatlona of Overmantel Centre Finial not ahown in Fig. l»J.
  6. 210.—Detail of Moulding on Ovar-wanul at N Fig. 200).
  7. 209 —Scroll of Overmantel at Q
  8. l»»J.



Figs. 211 and 212.—Front Elevation and Plan of Hanging Overmantel with Circular Mirror.



  1. 21«.—Section, showing Shape of Diagonal Lines on Overmantel
  2. 213.— End Elevation of Hanging Overmantel.
  3. 215.—Section! of Shelves for w^wgfng Overmantel.
  4. 215.—Section! of Shelves for w^wgfng Overmantel.

i fe

  1. 21«.—Section, showing Shape of Diagonal Lines on Overmantel
  2. 217.—Alternative Moulding for Overmantel Mirror.
  1. 213.— End Elevation of Hanging Overmantel.
  2. 214.-Vertical Section through Hanging OvermanteL
  3. 214.-Vertical Section through Hanging OvermanteL

Figs. 21» aad 21».—Plans of Overmantel Shelves.

Figs. 21» aad 21».—Plans of Overmantel Shelves.

with the hand-carving tools. Finally, a small bolection moulding is mitered round the framing for the mirrors, while the backing and glass are retained by slips bradded on.

Overmantel with Shelves and Turned Pillars.

Figs. 193 to 195 are views of a handsome overmantel, the chief feature being the turned pillars which support the shelves. These views and the detail figures (Figs. 196 to 210) show clearly the whole of the construction. Beneath each of the detail figures (Figs. 196 to 210) is a descriptive title, and further reference to them in the text would be superfluous. It may be said that the overmantel has an extremely good effect if made in oak with dark wood mouldings on the edges of the shelves.

Hanging Overmantel with Circular Mirror.

The overmantel shown by Fig. 211 may be made of pine, painted and enamelled white or a pale shade of green, with the outer edges, ornamental lines, and edges of the shelves gilded. Fig. 213 shows the end elevation, and Fig. 214 a section through the mirror. The extreme width is 5 ft., and the height 5 ft. 1$ in. A full-size drawing should first be made on sheets of brown or white lining paper pasted together. To secure the exact shape, make a tracing of the left-hand half of Fig. 211, and draw lines at right angles to each other to form squares of about | in.; then, on the full-size drawing, space out the same number of squares to occupy 2 ft. 6 in., this being half the width of the overmantel, and get the height in the same way. The lines in each corresponding square are then copied. Should a smaller size of overmantel be preferred, decide on the width required, and space out with the same number of squares as in the tracing. The wood should be about in. thick, the sizes of the various pieces being obtained from the full-size drawing. The top centre portion a (Fig. 211) is tenoned into the sides b as shown by the dotted lines on the right-hand side, the lower centre part c being treated in the same way. To make np the corners d, separate pieces are fitted. To receive these, the sides b should have grooves about £ in. deep and the same width as the mortices worked on their edges. The corner pieces are then provided with a tongue to fit bottom at the joints, as shown by the dotted lines e, p, and o (Fig. 211). To accomplish this, a template or mould of thin wood or cardboard should be made from the working drawing; then, by placing the pattern on the timber, the shaped pieces are cut out of the board

Column Png
Fig. 220.— Front Elevation of Chimney-piece Ornamented with Mouldings.

the grooves, the joint against the upper and lower parts being simply glued. The pieces d may be put in roughly as regards shape, and the circular opening cut to shape with a bow-saw when the framing is glued together. Care should be taken to select well-seasoned wood, or it may warp in its wider parts. A saving of material may be effected by gluing the prominent parts of the sides, top, and as desired. The prominent portions of the sides must be glued on after the sides have been mortised. The whole frame is then cramped together. After levelling the face and back of the frame, the outside shape should be marked on and then cut with a bow-saw, cleaning up with a spokeshave, file, and glasspaper. The outer edge may be bevelled as in a (Fig. 215), or hollowed with a gouge as in b (Fig. 215). The marginal lines h (Fig. 211) and the diagonals (see Fig. 216) are formed with a small gouge or parting tool. The moulding which surrounds the mirror may now be glued on, and further fixed with screws driven through from the back ; it should be about are shown in Fig. 218, and a side elevation in Fig. 213. Figs. 218 and 219 are alternative patterns for the shelves. The brackets are screwed from the back of the frame.

Circular Mirror.—A plain glass mirror may be used for the centre ; but a bevelled

Countersunk Screws Concealed Joinery
Fig. Ml.—End Eleva- Fig. 222. -Horizontal Section through Chimney-tion of Chimney-pieoe. piece Jamb.

1J in. wide and J in. thick, and should one is much more effective, and to get the project to form a |-in. rebate for the glass full benefit of the bevel, which should

(see iv Fig. 214). The moulding is got out be 1J in., the glass should measure only in curved sections, each section being $ in. more than the opening, thus taking jointed and butted against the next, and up ^ in. of the bevel all round. The mirror, when all are glued on it is turned or carved. • which should be coated at the edges

If carving is not desired, a bevelled edge with lampblack, is then fixed in position

(see Fig. 217) formed with a spokeshave with small triangular blocks k (Fig. 214)

may be substituted. The shelves and bracket about U in. long. The blocks should be are made of |-in. stuff. Plans of these of such a thickness as to form supports for the ¿-in. wood back l, which is secured with thin screws driven in a slanting direction into the frame. The overmantel is fixed to the wall by means of brass plates screwed to wooden plugs.

wide, and 1J in. thick; the jambs i 9 in. wide over all, and the opening 3 ft. 2 in. by 3 ft. 2 in. Fig. 220 she the front elevation, and Fig. 221 the < elevation. Two boards ▲ a (Fig. 2

Fig. 226.—Front Elevation of Chimney-piece with Fret Ornament.

Chimney-piece Ornamented with Mouldings.

The chimney-piece shown bv Fig. 220 is not complicated, and it has an effective and substantial appearance. The dimensions are : height. 4 ft. in. from hearth to top of shelf : width. 4 ft. S in. over the jambs ; width of frieze and shelf together, 1 ft. 4 in. ; the shelf is 5 ft. 10 in. long, 11 in.

and shown in section in Fig. 222) form jambs ; these are 7A in. broad (without tongue), and they extend from the 1 of the base to the under side of the sh The panelled frieze (shown in section Fig. 223) is made to fit between the jam and is neatly jointed and fixed with dov and glue : there is only 2 in. of the jc seen (c. Fig. 220), the rest of it be hidden behind the bracket b. The panel

  1. 329.-Part View of Back of Chimney-piece.
  2. 231.— Tenons and

Margin Mould of Rail under Friese.

Margin Mould of Rail under Friese.

Fig. 217.—Side Ele- Fig. 228.—Section Fig. 230 —

ration of Chimney- of Chimney-piece Return End of piece with Fret on Line ▲ B Mantelshelf. Ornament (Fig. 226).

Fig. 232.- Top Corner of Jambe.

3§ in., and is tongued into the moulding e ; this rail can be made in two pieces if more convenient, as shown in Fig. 223, and the stiles are also kept the extra width required to pass behind the brackets b. Two pieces D, 2J in. broad, the same length as the jambs, are tongued into them to broad. 7 in. high, and 41 in. thick. For fixing this a stump should be allowed to project up behind the jambs, tilling the space f (Fig. 222).

The Mouldings.—The moulding e ia planted round, mitered at the angles, and stopped against the block or base; it frame shows a margin of 1 in. all round; the top rail is wider by 2 in. than the margin shows, to accommodate the neck moulding (see section Fig. 223), and the bottom rail requires an extra width of form the ends of the chimney-piece (see section, Fig. 222, and side elevation, Fig. 221). The plinth or base of the jambs is a solid piece of wood, represented by the outer lines of Fig. 222, 10| in.

Fig. 329.-Part View of Back of Chimney-piece.

must be well glued and angle-blocked behind, as shown in section. The moulding h is planted upon the frieze and jambs, showing a 2-in. margin between it and the moulding e. A break of 1 in. is made over the top of the moulding m (Fig. 224), which helps the appearance greatly. This moulding is glued on, and screwed from the back of jambs and frieze. The base moulding n (Fig. 224) butts on the square edge of the moulding h, and returns round each side of the jambs, as n (Fig. 221). The mouldings m (Fig. 224) and p (Fig. 224) butt on h, and are returned on the ends in the same way ; all are glued and screwed from the back of the jambs. The brackets b supporting the shelf are 9£ in. long, 5 in. broad, and 5 in. thick (Fig. 225 shows part enlarged elevation and a section of the edge); they have an open space of 1 in. in the centre, and need not be solid. The easiest way is to make two brackets, 2 in. in thickness, and glue a 1-in. strip, shaped as shown, between them, at the top only; the part plan of the edge shows the fluting. These brackets are fitted between the shelf and the moulding h, and are glued and screwed from the back of the frieze ; a 2J-in. screw is also put through the open space in the centre of the bracket into the shelf ; the shelf is also well screwed and angle-blocked from the inside. The neck moulding o, shown in section and •elevation, butts on the brackets on each side, and returns on the sides of the jambs. The sizes of the mouldings are as follows :— Neck moulding o, 2 in. by 1J in.; moulding p, If in. by J in. ; moulding m, 2 in. by | in. ; base moulding n, 2 in. by 1 in.; moulding h, 2 in. by 1 in. ; moulding e, 2 in. by 1J in.

Chimney-piece with Fret Ornament.

The chimney-piece shown in front elevation by Fig. 220 and in side elevation by Fig. 227 is suitable for a large room furnished in oak in the Classic style. The fret ornament sunk in square in the frieze breaks up the large plain surface of the deep frieze-board, and harmonises with the stopped sinking running round the interior edge of the under portion. The ■centre piece, shaded dark, is preferably inlaid with ebony or a rich-coloured walnut, according to taste. The plinth blocks are round-faced, as indicated by the dotted line in Fig. 228, the jambs being double-dovetailed, housed in solid, except the front edge, and well glued and screwed to blocks. The cornice above the frieze is dentilled, and finished with a mantelshelf as shown. Fig. 228 represents a section on line a b (Fig. 226), and shows how the frieze-board is tongued to the under portion and also into the cornice; the cornice at the top being tongued to the mantelshelf. Fig. 229 is a conventional view from the back, showing the details of the plinth blocks, and also showing how the jambs are cut and continued up till they re^ch the under side of the mantelshelf, into which they are tenoned about $ in., the cornice being glue-blocked to this extension as shown. Between the two extensions two other pieces are partly housed in, and are well screwed to the frieze-board and to the under portion. These also tenon into the shelf, and are blocked in the same way. The cornice is mitered at the corners and well secured, the corner block being glued in as shown. The mantelshelf is half rounded on the front edge, and ploughed for the cornice tongue, the ends having tongued to them a return piece, which is blind-nailed and glued to the main shelf (see detail Fig. 230). The under portion of the chimney-piece is double-tenoned, and the margin mould is worked in the solid as shown in Fig. 231, the ends of this mould running across the tops of the jambs to mitre with the returns that break out from the upright moulds on the jambs as detailed in Fig. 232. The moulds on the jambs are preferably worked solid, but can be planted on—that is, glued, and screwed from the back. The break at the corner, shown enlarged in Fig. 233, is worked in the solid, or built up in two pieces, to conceal the end grain of the overhang of the jamb underneath (see Fig. 229). At the top, also, a piece must either be planted or left on the bottom external corners of the frieze-board (see Fig. 229). The fitting together should be done with extreme care, and the screwing, gluing, and blocking should

>e thoroughly workmanlike. The mantel-

»may be screwed to the cornice brass screws tiled flush, or may be >lind-nailed. Hall of the fret ornament hoedd l>e drawn full size on stiff racing paper, and reversed to mark the ther half. Whore the fret band crosses n the diagoual lines, the sinking should >e somewhat deepened. Alternatively, the design might, be executed in wlutcwood, enamelled white or cream, with the sinkings and centrepiece finished in gold leaf. Tho scale of Figs. 226, 227, and 229 is } in. to 1 ft.; that of Fig. 228 is 3 in. to 1 ft.; and that of Fig. 233 is half full size; while Figs. 230, 231. and 232 are reproduced to the scale of IJ in. t-o 1 ft. The abov«» scales are approximate.

One Piece Overmantels

Chimney-piece and Overmantel.

The chimney-piece and overmantel shown by Figs. 234 and 235 was designed and shelf runs level with the top of the dado rail fixed round the room, the section of the moulding on the edge of the mantelshelf corresponding with the moulding

Fig. 237. —Enlarged Part Front Elevation of Overmantel at A (Fig. 234).
  1. 238.—Enlarged Detail of Overmantel at C (Fig. 236).
  2. 239.—Enlarged Section of Overmantel

Fig. 239.—Enlarged Section of Overmantel

Pillar at D D (Fig. 236).

  1. 240.—Plan of Overmantel Shelf.
  2. 240.—Plan of Overmantel Shelf.

executed for a study. The material is wainscot oak of selected figure, and fumigated to match the furniture. The total height is 9 ft. 11J in., and the width 5ft. 1 in., exclusive of projection. Full details are shown by Figs. 236 to 242. The mantel-

on the upper part of the dado rail! The walls of the study are covered wjith an ingrain paper of dark apple-greeri tint; the picture rail is of oak; the cornicfe round the ceiling is tinted to match tblo paper and woodwork.


Fig. 236.—Section of Upper Part of Chimney-piece and Overmantel.

Chimney-piece.—The chimney-piece is constructed of lj-in. wainscot, with moulded base and twin trusses; these are shaped as shown, with sunk moulded panels in the shaped part. A sni'ill astragal moulding, 2 in. wide, is housed into and mitered


additional moulding tongued to it; this makes the edge bold, and also acts as a clamp at the ends to prevent the shelf warping.

  1. The overmantel is 5 ft,. 10 in. high by 5 ft. wide, and is fitted with six shelves, three on each side. These six »helves are carried by scrolled brackets and square-turned and reeded intermediate pillars, and are shaped and moulded on the edges, the diminished end finishing on the muntin. A plain 1-in. by ¿-in. fillet projecting J in. is fixed into a groove in the muntin. The fillet is cut away where the shelves come, to allow thein to fit up to the frame, which is put together and formed into open panels, the dimensions being as given in the front elevation. A bolection moulding is mitered ronnd the panel, and fixed to receive the glass, which is of plain polished silvered plate;
  2. 241. - Part Vertical Section of Overmantel Top at B Fig. 2341.

round the truss at the springing of the shaped part, a space of 1 in. being left between this and the neck moulding. Th<* moulding is 1} in. wide, and is housed and mitered round the truss. A space of 11 in. is left between the truss and the rap, the latter being formed with a moulding 2J in. wide, prepared for and carved into an egg-and-dart moulding supporting the mantel-shelf, which is in. thick. The space Iwtwecn the neck and cap moulding on the truss is ornamented by five i in. reedings with J-in. projection, the »pace of 3 in. being divided equally. The !ower moulding or plinth forms the base. Th-- friete lietween the mantel-shelf and rit irgina! moulding is planted on the face •>f the frame; this is swelled and returned at th-- ends, the returns showing the same .1» the face; it stands on the top edge • •f 'be marginal moulding fixed round the nprtung to fircplace. Sienna marble slips are fixed between the oak moulding and tbc «love. The moulding on the niantel-ih'lf is formed partly on the shelf itself, the 2-tn. thickness being made up by an


Fig. 342. Enlarged Detail of Mantelpiece and Pilaster nee E, Fig. 2)5).


Fig. 342. Enlarged Detail of Mantelpiece and Pilaster nee E, Fig. 2)5).

bevelling was objected to on account of the prismatic colour» which frequently show. The frieie and cornice arc built up as shown; the lower part of the frieze has a small moulding as a necking, the plain edge being relieved by small scrolled aprons

«a MS and MT.—End Elevation and nee Central Section of Chimney-piece and Overmantel.

Fig. 849.-Detail of Mantel Mouldings.

fixed to it. The soffit is formed with a piece of silvered plate-glass fitted into a small moulded frame, which is supported on a moulded fillet grooved into it as shown.

Chimney-piece and Overmantel based on Renaissance Design.

Figs. 243 to 247 show a chimney-piece and overmantel of Renaissance character. It should be executed in dark mahogany or walnut. Fig. 243 shows a front elevation ; Fig. 244 a half-plan below the mantelpiece; Fig. 245 a half-plan above the mantelpiece; Fig. 246 an end elevation ; Fig. 247 a vertical section through the centre; Fig. 248 an enlarged section of the cornice, etc.; Fig. 24(J an enlarged elevation of the mantelpiece and details of the mouldings ; Fig. 250 an elevation of the head and jamb of the chimney-piece showing the method of making the joint; Fig. 251 an enlarged detail of the plinth of the chimney-piece ; and Fig. 252 an enlarged section at a (Fig. 245). The following is the required cutting list :—

Cutting List.—Overmantel : Mantel back, two stiles, 2 ft. 4£ in. by 4f in. by lj in.; two muntins, 2 ft. 4 J in. by 7 in. by 1J in.; three bottom rails, 1 ft. 2 in. by 4£ in. by 1£ in. ; three top rails, 1 ft. 2 in. by 4J in. by 1£ in. ; three pieces of deal to joint on these, 1 ft. 2 in. by 4£ in. by 1£ in.; three pieces of silvered plate with f-in. bevelled edges, 1 ft. 3 in. by in. by f in. ; one frieze,- 3 ft. 11 in. by 1$ in. by f in. ; four pilasters, 1 ft. 9£ in. by 2J in. by f in. ; one cornice, 5 ft. 4 in. by 5 J in. by in. ; one cover-board, deal,

4 ft. 4 in. by in. by | in.; one plinth piece, 2 ft. 2 in. by 4£ in. by f in. ; one piece for necking, 2 ft. 2 in. bv in. by J in. Chimney-piece: One mantel-board,

5 ft. 4J in. by 11 in. by 2 in. ; one headpiece, 4 ft. by 4J in. by 1 in. ; piece of deal to joint on t>i in. wide ; two plinth pieces, 7 in. by 8.J in. by 1J in. ; 10-ft. run of 2 in. by lj-in. echinus moulding ; two jambs 3 ft. 9 in. by 8£ in. by 1 in. ; one bed-mould, 5 ft. 3 in. by 8 in. by 2 in. ; two plinth blocks, in. by 4J in. by 1 \ in. ; 7-ft. run of lf-in. by j-in. double ogee moulding.

Construction of Chimney-piece and Overmantel.—The jambs and head are framed together first as shown in Fig. 250, a pair of TVin. stub tenons being used. These are well glued and screwed from the back. The ogee border moulding is rebated as shown in Fig. 247 and the frame grooved to receive it. This is fitted tight and glued in. The plinth blocks are glued and screwed from the backs, as is also the carved ovolo moulding. The mantelpiece has the end mouldings returned in the solid, and is stiffened with three f-in. iron bolts as shown in the section (Fig. 247). These may be left projecting 3 in., and may be cemented into the wail. The piece is secured to the head with screws countersunk from the top. A f-in. groove should be made in the under side to receive the tongue of the bed-mould, and this must be stopped 6 in. from each end. The bed-mould is fixed to the back first with screws, and the mantel dropped on it. The return ends of the bed-mould are mitered on, and a cross tongue should be grooved into the joints; at the back end the moulding finishes partly against the face and partly running over the edge; alternatively the carved beads may be got out separately and sunk into grooves J in. deep in the bed-mould. The back of the overmantel is framed up in one piece, the inner stiles being shams; they are slot-mortised over the rails. All the tenons are stopped and screwed from the back. The framing is double-checked, once for glass and once for the wood panel, as shown in the detail Fig. 252. The pilasters are all sunk f in. into the back, and glued in; the two outside ones should be rebated as shown, and a good joint made at the outside before fixing them. The plinth and necking should be mitered round and fixed. The plinths should be sunk in f in., and glued on, the fronts first, and allowed to dry, then the end pieces fitted and glued to them. The outside pilasters require their neckings and plinths to be carried on flush with the back side of the framing. The frieze is next fitted. This is simply glued on the face of the framing on the top of the pilasters. The cornice is worked out of a parallel piece of stuff

\ 4

11 h kIiow n in Fig. and r.xeii w.rh frnin fhi- ba'k. it is lipped in. 0T*r Mm* frieze. and rebated out | :n. for rhe i'iivit- bo,i rd.

Chimney-piece and Cupboard Overmantel.

The design for a mantel fitment shown by Fig. I'VJ comprises a chimney-piece with framed jambs supporting elliptic shelves in the corners, and an ogee central shelf I »How the mantel-board. The overmantel contains a bevel-edged mirror and a panelled back, the wings being fitted with cupboards having glazed doors; the cupboards surmount shelves which rest ends of the cupboards are housed £ into the mantel-board, as shown in 254 and 256; the bottom shelf of .rupboard is housed into the standards, the moulded edge running across the front and mitering with a return piece planted on the face of the standard. The tops run over the standards, and are moulded in the solid, the standards being housed into them and nailed. The mirror is framed into the back as shown in Figs. 255 and 25*, being fixed with sprigged fillets. Should the wall be at all damp, it would be advisable to brad on an additional deal back, but in ordinary cases painting is sufficient. Fig. 259 shows a

Fig. 254.—Half Sectional Plans of Chimney-piece and Cupboard Overmantel.

»•n the cupboard ends, which arc shaped ■r.t,» brackets. The size of the opening !\-r the replace is o ft. 4 ill. by ft. (J in., .-.r.d the outside dimensions of the fitment /.re Height. ft. »U in. ; width, 4 ft. 11 in. ; creates: projection. 12 in. The design ■X. -..M l.vk equally effective in fumigated ■v.k. » r yellow pine stained and polished. K c i r»-presents a plan showing on the :■a s.M.on through a a (Fig. 253), . . v. the right a half section through v- V*.^. ^ : the dieted lines indicate > i :v.o::ld:r.gs above the line of V - :> a vertical section c F:« i . ar.d shi-ws the general >":.. \v> an enlarged ...' v. : the v v.r-Kv.rd and "... v . . ... • F:g. 'J"-7 >hows . - . . >■■. v.. v. . : the >.:v.e parts. vi l-:r*. Vt

1 -in. The vertical section through the base and surbase of the jamb ; the surbase is formed with a hollow boxing, having f-in. panelled framing in front, 1-in. plain ends, and the 1-in. jamb at the back. A ¿-in. board forms the top, oversailing and forming part of the ovolo moulding planted round the front and ends. A j-in. by 8-in. ovolo moulding plinth forms the base, and this is screwed and blocked to the framing. Fig. 2<>0 represents a horizontal section through the surbase, and shows two methods of construction, that on the left being suitable for painted work, that on the right for polished hard woods. Fig. 2"»> gives a sectional elevation (to a somewhat smaller s.v»le than the other details'1 of the parts immediately below the mantel-board. e indicating the central bracket. Y the shaped side of the jamb, and c, the head l:r.:r.g. F:g. illustrates the method o: :..ster.:::g the head TnsiS to the :y a slot dovetail; the she!

back and ends, must be notched back at the front edge sufficiently to let it come forward and clear the back lining while the latter is being driven into place; after-

253, 254, and 255 are reproduced to a scale of 1 in. to 1 ft., the détails to a scale of 3 in. to 1 ft., with the exception of Fig. 258, which is to the scale of 2 in. to 1 ft.

Fig. 25«.—Detail of Overmantel Cupboard.

  1. 25«.—Detail of Overmantel Cupboard.
  2. 25a—Section through Mantel-board and 8helf.

Fig. 357.—Half Plan of Orermantel Cupboard.

Fig. 357.—Half Plan of Orermantel Cupboard.

wards the shelf is knocked back into the groove and nailed through the jambs, the corner shelf hiding the nail holes. The jamb d and the bracket e should be iovetail grooved into the mantel-board f Jo keep it from casting; and the stuff lor this board should be specially selected, mad cat radial to the annual rings. Figs.

Fig. 255. —Vertical Section on Line C C (Fig. 254) of Chimney-piece and Cupboard Orermantel.

  1. 268 and 269.— Enlarged Vertical Cross Sections through Chimney-piece.
  2. 270.—Central Vertical Section of Chimney-piece.
  3. 273.—Section and Plan of Chimney-piece Cupboard Side.

Fig. 368.

  1. 271 and 272.—Enlarged Details of Corner of Chimney-piece Cupboard Door.
  2. 273.—Section and Plan of Chimney-piece Cupboard Side.

Fig. 269.

  1. 268 and 269.— Enlarged Vertical Cross Sections through Chimney-piece.
  2. 267.—Cross Section of Chimney-piece on Line A A (Fig. 264).
  3. 270.—Central Vertical Section of Chimney-piece.

in the mantel-board, serves to secure them to this. The central portion of the mantel-board is lined out, to increase its apparent thickness, as shown in Fig. 270; the wings





  1. 274.—Elevation and Plan of Chimney-piece Cupboard Bide.
  2. 274.—Elevation and Plan of Chimney-piece Cupboard Bide.

are fitted with shaped apron pieces, blocked solid over the dwarf columns. These columns are dowelled at each end, are turned square, and have volutes carved on each angle of the cap. It will be seen that the brackets supporting the lower shelf are housed into the latter, and they are secured to the back with screws, their lower ends running down to the floor, where the plinth breaks around them as shown in Figs. 265 and 269. The upper shelves are shaped elliptical, as shown in Fig. 266, and are housed into the columns at back and front. The cupboard doors are sunk J in. below the sides, and are

  1. 270.—Moulding on Fig. 27«.—Moulding on Edge of Chimney-piece Edge of Chimney-pieoe Bracket*. Shelve*.
  2. 270.—Moulding on Fig. 27«.—Moulding on Edge of Chimney-piece Edge of Chimney-pieoe Bracket*. Shelve*.

hung with the knuckle of the hinge flush with the edge of the side, so that the door will open back clear of the edge. The marginal bars in the door are dovetailed at the angles, the moulding cut away to the mitre line, and the angle bars saddled over the square, as indicated by the dotted line in Fig. 271. Figs. 262 to 267 are reproduced to £ in. to 1 ft., and Figs. 268 to 275 2 in. to 1 ft. (approximately). Fig. 276 is one-third full size.

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