Figs. 277 and 278 illustrate a simple bookcase with a cupboard underneath. The height from the floor line to the top is 6 ft., the width outside the ends is 3 ft., and the depth from back to front is 11 in. The lower part is enclosed by a pair of panelled doors, and the upper part, to receive the books, is enclosed by a pair of folding doors with glass panels, the two parts being divided by a table shelf, having a projecting moulding along the front and returned round the ends. The skirting or plinth is also mitered along the front and ends. The cornice is shaped from a piece of stuff 3 in. by § in., and is also mitered round. The doors, both upper and lower, are made the full width of the case, and are hinged to the side as shown, and the inside of the cupboard is fitted with two shelves which are movable, being cut in clear of the sides; they rest on small fillets, which are screwed to the sides. The inside of the bookcase is fitted with three shelves; these also are movable, and rest on similar fillets. The shelves, when fitted in this manner, are easily raised or lowered as required for variation in the size of the books.
Cutting List.—The materials required for the simple bookcase are as follows :—Two lengths, 6 ft. by 10£ in. by f in., for sides ; one, 2 ft. 11 in. bv 11 in. by £ in., for bottom ; one, 2 ft. 11 in. by 11 in. by £ in., for top ; one, 3 ft. 1J in. by 1 ft. OJ in. by 1 in., for table shelf ; five lengths, 2 ft. 11 in. by in. by £ in., for shelves ; one, 6 ft. by 3 ft. by J in., for matchboard back ;
one, 5 ft. 8 in. by 3 in. by £ in., for cornice ; four pieces, 2 ft. 3 in. by 2£ in. by 1 in., for door stiles; four pieces, 1 ft. 6J in. by 2£ in. by 1 in., for door rails ; two pieces, 1 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 2 in. by | in., for door panels; four pieces, 3 ft. 7 in. by 2 in. by 1 in., for door stiles ; two pieces, 1 ft. in. by 2£ in. by 1 in., and two pieces, 1 ft. 6$ in. by If in. by 1 in., for door rails ; four pieces, 3 ft. 4 in. by £ in. by J in., and four pieces, 1 ft. 3 in. by £ in. by J in., for glazing bead ; two pieces, 3 ft. 2f in. by 1 ft. 3 in., of clear selected 21-oz. sheet glass; four 1 ¿-in. brass cupboard knobs; two 2J-in. brass straight cupboard locks; two brass thread escutcheons; two 3-in. iron-necked bolts ; four pairs of 2J-in. brass butt hinges ; two dozen 1-in. iron screws; four dozen f-in. No. 7 screws; and J lb. of f-in. panel pins.
Construction of Simple Bookcase.—The sides are prepared and set out in pairs, the edges shot quite straight, and lines squared across to the dimensions. The back inside edge of each side is rebated £ in. deep to receive the back. The top ends are dovetailed or rebated to receive the top, and the bottom ends are grooved on the inside 3 in. up to receive the bottom, and also 2 ft. 6 in. up to receive the table shelf^ The top and bottom shelves are prepared both alike, level with the edge of the sides, and the table shelf is moulded on the front edge, and cut long enough to mitre at each end to receive the two return mouldings as shown in Fig. 279. The cornice moulding (Fig. 280) is worked, or a piece of ordinary architrave moulding may be used and mitered round. The doors are mortised and tenoned together, and
Fig. 282.—General View of Sectional Fig. 2*4.—Enlarged 8eetion Bookcase. Part of Sectional moulded and grooved to receive the panels. The upper doors are rebated to receive the glass panels, the glass being secured by small beads or fillets mitered round and fixed with panel pins. Fig. 281 is a section of the plinth.
in the ends (see Fig. 283). The doors are framed together in single panels, the glass being fixed with beads. Each door has two hooks fixed to it, level with the top and flush with each end rail (see Fig. 284). These hooks hang on rollers a, and are
The bookcase shown by Fig. 282 is constructed in sections, each part being a case in itself, so that more or fewer sections may be used as required. The chief feature of this method of construction is that the parts, such as the doors, ends, shelves, and backs, are interchangeable. No nails, screws, or dowels are used : the shelves have malleable iron ends, with tongues at top and bottom, which fit into the grooves easily removed by lifting off the roller. To open a door in order to reach a book from the case, the door is raised by the knobs until horizontal; it is then pushed into the case, sliding along on the roller and steel guide b. When the case is not in use, the door is withdrawn and allowed to fall into its original position. Fig. 283 shows the door lying on the roller; also the method of fixing the end of the steel guide. The fixing of the opposite end is seen in Kg. 285. The backs are dovetailed to the cads so as to slide in or out as desired. An enlarged section through the bottom section is presented by Fig. 286.
A cabinet bookcase is shown by Fig. 287. The finished sizes of timbers are: Top,
Fig. 285.—Enlarged Section through Upper Part of Sectional Bookcase.
the end, full size. The height of the door compartment is 1 ft. 6 in., and the recesses along the side are 10J in. wide, and the drawer fronts are 4 in. high. The top projects 1 in. all round. The wood must first be planed to thickness, length, and width. The top has an ovolo moulding a (Fig. 288) worked on the front and end edges, or, if this is inconvenient, a bevelled edge b (Fig. 288) will be suitable. Next groove the ends J in. deep for the two shelves and bottom, but take care that the grooves stop } in. short of the front edges of the ends, so that they will not show on the front. The back edges of the ends a (Fig. 289) also require rebating to receive the side muntins. In the two long shelves plough ¿-in. grooves, } in. from the front edges, to receive strips s (Fig. 290), on which are glued the leather valances which hang over the books. The shaped span-rail beneath the bottom is also grooved or housed in i in. deep and stands i in. from the face of the ends. In putting together, first fix the two long shelves and bottom with nails or thin 2}-in. screws
Fig. 285.—Enlarged Section through Upper Part of Sectional Bookcase.
3 ft. 3 in. by I ft. 4 in.; outside ends, 3 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 2 in.; two shelves and bottom, 2 ft. 11} in. by 1 ft. 1J in. ; two inside ends on each side of door, 1 ft. 6} in. by 1 ft. 1} in.; and the shaped span-rail beneath the bottom, 2 ft. 11} in. by 6 in. wide. All are of 1-in. stuff, which should finish about in. thick. Two bottoms beneath the drawers are 10} in. long by 1 ft. H in. deep, of }-in. stuff. The door stiles and rails are of l}-in. stuff, and the panel is of ¿-in. stuff. The shaped back above the top is of 1-in. stuff, and 3 ft. 1 in. long by 1 ft. 5 in. high. The shelf, 2 ft. 11 in. by 6 in., and the brackets beneath, 9 in. by 6 in., are also of 1-in. stuff. The drawer fronts are 1 in. thick, and the sides and bottoms are of ¿-in. stuff. The back of the carcase consists of three muntins, 3 ft. 6 in. by 3£ in., of 1-in. stuff, and the backs between are 3 ft. 6 in. long and about 1 ft. 2 in. wide and f in. thick. First mark oat half the front elevation and
next the inside ends and bottoms under the drawers ; and finally the top, nailing it through into the ends from the top side. The shaped span-rails under the drawers are fitted between the ends and then secured
with nails. Let them stand back -fa in. The muntins of the back may now be fixed, the shelves being cut away a little at B (Fig. 289), and for the centre muntin c. The latter and the sides are grooved to receive the thin backs D, which slide up from below and are screwed where they come over the shelves and l>ottom. The aides of the drawers are lap-dovetailed to the fronts as in Fig. 291, and, instead of weakening the sides by grooving for bottoms.
J-in. slips r (Figs. 291 and 292) are grooved oud the top edge O is half-rounded. The drawer liottoms are pushed along the grooves and into the groove h (Fig. 291) of the drawer fronts. The door stiles and rails are 1} in. wide without moulding, and are mortised and tenoned together. The lines J (Fig. 29:1) on the panel are cut with a gouge, and the oval fan-like pattern is carved to the section shown. Figs. 294 to 299 show the method of marking the
Fig. 296. Pattern for Cabinet Bookcase Bracket
designs for brackets and span-rails. If the mortising and tenoning for a door as Fig. 299 cannot be done, make the door of a piece of 1-in. stuff, with two battens behind it to prevent it warping, and work a hollow to take the place of moulding. Or a curtain of some soft fabric may be substituted for the door. The design in the centre of the back is cut through. The
brackets and shelf are secured with screws driven through from the back, and it is well to screw the bottom edges of the brackets from the under side of the top. To do this, bore a 1-in. centre-bit hole through the bottoms under the drawers, so that a screwdriver may be inserted and the screw turned from below. Handles for the drawers and door, also hinges and three or four coats of paint, will complete the job. The cabinet would also look very well if made of mahogany, stained dark, and french-polished. In this case a silvered mirror should be framed in under the shelf of the upper part. Of course, the construction would be somewhat different, as nails could not then be used.
The revolving bookcase shown by Figs. 300 to 303 might be constructed in English oak, but almost any hardwood would look well. Details are illustrated fully by Figs. 304 to 308. It consists chiefly of two parts, the revolving case and the support or stand. The wood for the centre box of the case should be grooved and tongued together as shown in the horizontal section. Before fitting together, the insides should be rebated at the top to receive the collar, which is a piece of wood | in. thick, with a hole bored through the centre a trifle larger than the diameter of the pole (see Fig. 308). Its object is to keep the case running truly round the centre pole. A number of blocks should be glued in the internal angles, the centre ones being pushed into position first with the aid of a stick. The box should be set out for the housings into which the shelves are fitted. The shelves are made up of four pieces, mortised and tenoned together as shown in Fig. 305; two shelves only are illustrated, but others may be added to suit requirements. The bottom shelf can be glued before fastening to the box, but the shelves in the centre must be glued into the housings round the box. Laths are screwed round the box directly above and beneath the shelves, to form additional support and to prevent the books being pushed into another compartment. The laths on the upper side should be placed first, and a screw or two driven into them from the under sides of the shelves. The top and bottom ends of the centre box should fit nicely, and should be fixed into position with screws. A hole is bored through the bottom for the centre pole. A pin and plate (Fig. 306) must be procured; the plate should be let into the under side of the top, and should be firmly bedded to the wood. The top is square, with a moulding worked round the
top edges to the section given. Four pieces along one edge and returned in the ends, about 7 in. long should be screwed to the To hold the top firmly, a few screws should under side of the top in the positions be put. diagonally through the top of the indicated, the outside faces of these being box and into the bookcase, top. The plinth directly over the edges of the shelves (see Fig. 304) is made of two pieccs g!u<*d below. The strips should be chamfered and blocked together. Both pieces are
Figa SOI to 80S. Front Elevation, Vertical Section on Line Y Y), and Hortiontal Section (on Line X X) of Revolving Bookcase.
Fig. 30G. —Detail of Revolving Bookcase, showing Shelf Construction and Fixing.
mitered together at the corners; the top one, having a thumb moulding worked along the edge, is screwed to the bottom shelf. The sides or faces of the plinth may be rectangular if desired, or may be cut to the shape given in Fig. 301. The panels or laths round the sides should be screwed to the bottom and intermediate ■«helves, also the strips under the top, using round-headed screws. As an alternative to the panel, five laths are shown in the horizontal section (Fig. 303), and these may be reeded on the face.
Stand for Revolving Bookcase.—The const ruction of the stand is clearly shown in the sectional elevation (Fig. .302) and the enlarged detail (Fig. 307). The foot consists of two bearers halved together at the centre, a mortice being made through the top one for the reception of the stub tenon on the end of the post (see Fig. 307). The centre post is turned to H in. in diameter, and should be left square at the bottom as shown. Four blocks of the shape shown should be well glued and screwed to the foot of the post and the beams. The ends of the bearers are rounded as shown, and should have ball castors fixed under the ends, and one in the ' entre if desired. The piu should be screwed into the top uf the post, care being taken to get it in the centre. The bookcase is «lipped over the post, in which position it will remain.
Finishing Revolving Bookcase.—The de--¡gn on the panels lends itself to various wi»y* of treatment, and careful consideration iu arranging the coloured woods is deferable. The grain of the wood should follow the maiu and radial lines of the design as far as possible, and the horizontal -iud vertical lines should be kept in some >>f the larger masses, this procedure imparting strength to the design. Another method <>f making the panels would be to stain the designs by the aid of a stencil process. Should this method be adopted, the design would require altering slightly to obtain the ties in the stencil plate. The book-cm* should be finished by polishing, etc., and this will vary according to the wood tucd. If de-sired, lira« handles may be fixed to the panels for revolving the bookcase.
A reading table with revolving bookshelf is illustrated by Figs. 309 and 310. The table consists of a circular top 1 ft. 7 in. in diameter and 1 in. thick, with an ogee moulding worked on the edge ; this stands on a 2j-in. turned pillar 2 ft. 6 in. high, supported by four shaped claws lj in. thick. The table is provided with a revolving candle-holder working immediately under the top and just clear of its edge, so that the whole surface of the top is available for papers, etc.; lower down, and at such a height as just to clear the knees of a person sitting at the table, is a revolving bookshelf having three arms radiating from the centre, each 11 in. long by C in. wide, and provided with side galleries 3 in. in height. Fig. 310 shows on the left hand a half-plan of the top (the dotted outlines at a indicating the position of the claws), and on the right a half-plan just above the bookshelves, the dotted lines indicating the candle-holder and arm. Fig. 311 is a section through the centre of the pillar, showing the iron stem to which the table-top is attached and on which revolve the candle-arm and the plate to which the bookshelves are secured. These parts are shown separately in plan and elevation in Figs. 312 and 313 respectively, Fig. 314 being the plan of the candle-ariu.
Pillar of Revolving Table - Referring to Fig. 311, the iron stem, which is 17| in. long and $ in. in diameter, is welded to a plate in. thick and 5 in. in diameter, with two <3-in. by lj-in. by Jin. arms welded on as shown in Fig. 312. These arms are placed at right angles to the direction of the grain of the table-top, and are sunk flush with its underside, the circular portion being screwed on the surface. The pillar of the table is made in two parts, each being bored through to take the stem; the hole should be of such size that the stem will pass through with slight pressure ; it should not be too tight for subsequent removal, or so loose that there is side play. A small washer shrunk on the stem as at a (Fig. 312) would prevent wear of the end of the pillar by the revolving arm,
of Pillar of Banting Table.
of Pillar of Banting Table.
Fig. 312. —Table-plate and Stem for Beading Table.
but is not absolutely necessary, and, if it is used, the candle-arm must be placed in position before the washer is fixed. The lower end of the upper half of the pillar is turned down to 1J in. in diameter where it passes through the bookshelf, and the upper end of the lower part of the pillar is turned out to receive the sleeve attached to the bookshelf plate (see Fig. 313). This hole should be the exact depth of the sleeve, and of such a size that the plate can revolve freely.
Bookshelf of Revolving Table.—Fig. 315 is an enlargement of the central portion of the bookshelves, the under side being shown with the metal plate attached; this need not be sunk in, as it cannot be seen when in position. The ends of the shelves are mitered and cross-tongued together as indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 315 and shown in the section (Fig.
Claw Foot of Pillar.—Figs. 319 and 320 show the method of fixing the claws in dovetail slots in the pillar on four squared faces; the dovetails are notched down 1 in. from the top, and should fit tightly, and may advantageously be made with slightly tapering sides, so that they will tighten as they are driven in place. Fig. 321 is a section of the claws on the line a a (Fig. 319). The wood for the claws should be selected of strong, even grain, and the pattern for cutting should be placed on the stuff, so that the grain may run as long as possible through the curved parts.
Finishing Revolving Table.—Cut and fit up all the parts before any carving is done. When fixing the iron stem in the pillar, the lower half should be coated with Brunswick black or varnish, which will adhere both to the wood and iron and make the parts secure. It may be desirable at some future time to remove the upper portion passing through the pillar, and it should therefore be coated with grease and black-lead ; all the working parts should be similarly treated. These metal fittings can usually be obtained of manufacturing ironmongers in dozen sets only; but any skilful blacksmith could make them if supplied with full-size drawings of each part separately and a scale sketch similar to Fig. 311. The candlestick could be of brass, screwed to the arm, and a small brass hook as shown at e (Fig. 314) should be brazed on to clip the edge of the table and prevent the arm dropping. Figs. 309 to 314 are drawn to a scale of in. to 1 ft., and Figs. 315 to 321 are 3 in. to 1 ft., with the exception of Figs. 317 and 318, which are half full size.
A small museum cabinet for the display of curiosities is shown to a scale of J in. to the foot by Figs. 322 to 325; in addition to which figure*, details one-quarter size are shown as follows: Fig. 326, detail plan of part of case; Fig. 327, detail vertical section through front; and Fig. 328, detail section of plinth to base. The outside dimensions are—4 ft. wide by 1 ft. 6 in. deep by 6 ft. 3 in. high. The case is constructed of Austrian wainscot oak for all outside parts, which are french-polished; while the parts that are hidden are of best yellow pine. All the materials must be "perfectly seasoned. The lower part of the case, comprising the base, is panelled and moulded, and is made independent of the upper part or case proper. This latter is constructed on the air-tight principle, the opening sashes or doors having hook joints on the meeting stile and air-tight beads to the hanging stile. The frame has airtight fillets at top and bottom, the ends being framed to match the front, and glazed with ¿-in. British polished plate glass. The case is lined inside on the back and l>ottom with velvet plush; the back of |-in. matchboard is papered before being covered. The case is fitted with plate-glass shelves, shaped as shown, and sup-]>orted on bronzed iron or brass shelf brackets, fastened with set screws to vertical standard bars, which are tapped at intervals of 1J in. to 2 in. for convenience in raising or lowering the position of the shelves. The doors are hung on brass arrow butts, three to each door. The left-hand door is fitted with a brass bolt at top and at bottom ; the right-hand one. with an eccentric handle and catch, and a small sash lock.
Materials for Small Museum Cabinet.— The materials required are:—For the base : Wainscot plinths, one 4 ft. 2 in. by 4 in. by 1 in. ; two 1 ft. 8 in. by 4 in. by
1 in. Pine rails, one 4 ft. 2 in. by 4 in. by | in. ; two 1 ft. 8 in. by 4 in. by } in. Wainscot rails, one 4 ft. 1 in. by
2 in. by 1 in. ; one 4 ft. 1 in. by 1J in. by 1 in. ; two 1 ft. 6 in. by 1J in. by 1 in. ; two 1 ft. G in. by 2 in. by 1 in. Wainscot stiles, six 1 ft. 3 in. by 3 in. by 1 in. Wainscot muntins, two 1 ft. bv 3 in. by 1 in. Wainscot panels, two 1 ft. * in. by 8 in. by £ in.; two 1 ft. 1 in. by 8 in. by \ in. Wainscot moulding, two 4 ft. <> in. by 1J in. by | in.; two 3 ft. 2 in. by 1J in. by \ in. Wainscot base capping, one 7 ft. 3 in. by 2 in. by 1 in. Pine top, one 3 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 5 in. by J in. Deal back, one 4 ft. by 1 ft. 3 in. by } in. Deal bearer, one 1 ft. I) in. by 3 in. by 1J in. Twelve deal angle blocks, 3 in. long ; 3J doz. f-in. No. 9 screws for panel moulding; 1 doz. lj-in. No. 10 screws for fixing plinth ; 14 ft. run }-in. feather cross-tongue. For the case : Wainscot stiles, two 4 ft. 8 in. by 1} in. by 1 in. ; two 4 ft. 8 in. by 1J in. by 1 in. ; two 5 ft. 2 in. by If in. by 1 in. ; two 3 ft. 2 in. by 1J in. by 1 in. ; "two 5 ft. 2 in. by 2 in. by 1 in. Wainscot rails, one 4 ft. by 1J in. by 1 in. ; two 1 ft. 0 in. by 2$ in. by 1 in.; one 4 ft. by If in. by 1 in. ; two
1 ft. 6 in. by 2| in. by 1 in. Pine rails, one 4 ft. by 3£ in. by J in. ; two 1 ft. (5 in. by 3J in. by f in. Wainscot rails, four
2 ft. by 1| in. by 1 in. Wainscot cornice, one 8 ft. by 4J in. by 2J in. Pine lining, one 4 ft. by in. by § in. Wainscot fillet, two 4 ft. by 1£ in. by f in. Pine fillet, one 4 ft. by 2 in. by f in. Pine top, one 4 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. by } in. Pine bottom, one 4 ft. by 1 ft. 5 in. by J in. Deal matched ,back, one 5 ft. by 4 ft. by f in. Feather tongue, one 7 ft. run } in. Wain-
paper ; 24 ft. super, velvet plush; two brass-necked bolts ; three pairs brass butts ; one eccentric handle ; one brass sash lock.
Figs. 329 to 331 show a china cabinet, in making which a pair of sash doors n—i
scot glazing bead, 50 ft. run \ in. by J in. Plate glass, two 4 ft. 3} in. by 1 ft. 8f in. by £ in. ; two 4 ft. 3} in. by 1 ft. 3 in. by J in. Standard bars, two 4 ft. 9} in. long, with base and top plate drilled and countersunk for screws ; ten 12-in. shelf brackets and set screws ; five glass shelves, 3 ft. 8 in. long by 1 ft. 1 in. wide, cut to shape, edges ground and polished; 5 yds. white lining f
Figs. 322 to 325.—Front Elevation, Bide Elevation, Vertical Cross Section, and Plan of Small Museum Cabinet.
has been utilised. The following materials will be required : Deal bottom, 3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 in.; two deal shelves, 3 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 5^ in. byl} in.; deal division, 2 ft. 10£ in. by 1 ft. 5£ in. by } in.; deal matchboard back, 3 ft. 5£ in. wide by 3 ft. 1 in. high by i in. thick; two mahogany ends, 3 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. by 1 in.; mahogany top, 3 ft. 9 in. by/1 ft.
8 in. by 1 in.; mahogany skirting or plinth, the outer side and thicknessed. The exact
7 ft. 2 in. by 3 in. by J in.; deal fillet length to which they should be cut is 3 ft.
under top, 3 ft. in. by J in. by J in.; 1 in., which allows J in. to go into the groove mahogany rebated stop on doors, 2 ft. 10 in. in the top and sufficient to run down to by 1J in. by i in.; brass cut 2-in. cupboard the floor level. From the lower end on lock and screws; two brass flush bolts, the inner face a groove is prepared, 3 in. 4 in. by f in., and screws; two pairs of
are front and side elevations, and Fig. 331 is a horixontal section. The doors being each 2 ft. 9f in. by 1 ft. 8J in., the carcase must be framed accordingly. The ends are prepared 1 ft. 7 in. wide; .and if the mahogany cannot be obtained in one width, they must be put together with a tongued and glued joint, and afterwards faced on up, to receive the deal bottom (see Fig. 332). The mahogany top must be prepared in the same manner as the ends, and cut 3 ft. 8 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. wide. Grooves are prepared at each end on the under side to take the ends (see also Fig. 332), the outside of the groove being J in. from the end; they should be stopped 1 in.
from the face edge (see Fig. 333), the amount of the projection. Rebates must be formed in the back edges of the top shown. The top should then be moulded along the front edge and return ends (see Figs. 332 and 333). The bottom is of deal,
Figs. 329 to 331.—Front and Side Elevations and Horizontal Section of China Cabinet.
Figs. 329 to 331.—Front and Side Elevations and Horizontal Section of China Cabinet.
Enlarobo Section .mbh dutch mouldino.
euv a tion
Enlarobo Section .mbh dutch mouldino.
Enlarged section through mouloing ron Middle Rail
Enlarged section through mouloing ron Middle Rail
Enlaroeo Secti through in Door Openino
Enlaroeo Section throuoh Skirting Boaro v^
Enlaroeo Section thrcuch Plaster Side Panels
Enlarged Section through Ooor Stile ano Bottom Panel euv a tion
Enlarged Section through Ooor Stile ano Bottom Panel
Enlarged Section through Meeting Stiles of Doors
aide of the mahogany top, but this is stopped, whilst that in the bottom runs right through. The cxact cutting length of the bottom is $ in. over the clear dimension between the grooves in the top, 3 ft. 4J in.; the extra J in. goes J in. each side into the grooves in the ends. The vertical division is cut 2 ft. 10$ in., and is 1 ft. 5J in. wide. The shelves are cut clear between the ends and the division, and rest on deal fillets screwed to the ends and the division. The skirting, which is moulded, and mi to rod at the angles, should 1»; glued to the edge of the bottom along the front, and further strengthened by angle-blocks glued on the inside. The returns are fixed by means of screws through the ends, which continue down to the door level. The joint at the meeting stile i ot the doors is covered by a moulded an:l rebated stop (see Fig. 334). The dimensions given are calculated to allow the doors to finish 1 in. thick.
Sheraton, the celebrated cabinet-maker, constructed furniture which was very light and graceful in appeanince, but which was so skilfully put together that many examples, after the wear of a century, are practically as perfect as when they left the workshop. Rosewood and Spanish mahogany, both solid and in veneer, were his favourite woods ; and these were generally inlaid with aandal, or aatinwood and ebony. Sheraton also largely employed stained and shaded woods in inlaying for decorative e fleet, festoons and running scrolls being much employed, and the bars in the cabinets were convoluted and. extremely fragile in appearance. The Sheraton cabinet shown in elevation in Fig. 335 and in section by Fig*. 330 and 337 is intended to stand in a right-angle corner, and is of 1 ft. 10 in. side, out to out, with G-in. returns. It stands 7 ft. 1 in. high, with a 1-ft. 10-in. front. Fig. 337 is a section at x x (Fig. 335). Make the cabinet of dark mahogany. The fine leu* run through both compartments aro gut from IJ-in. stuff. -The shelves are cut around and sunk into grooves in the legs to a depth of | in., as in Figs. 338 and 339. The lower shelf is shown by Fig. 343. The ends of the legs are tenoned through the top, and nailed. The cornice, of J-in. stuff, is glued and bradded on the edge of the top, the j-in. cover-board being nailed on top and fitted tightly, but- not glued to the over-cornice. This is glued and blocked to the top of the cabinet with shaped return pieces, as shown in Figs. 335 and 336. The cornice and over-cornice are both inlaid, as shown in Fig. .'110, the lines being of black walnut or ebony, or stained to represent the latter; the lozenges are aatinwood; the enclosed shaped panels are rosewood or beefwood; and the teudril ornament either satinwood shaded or green ash. The various panels and bottom shelf can also bo inlaid with a similar pattern of running tendrils or line-work. Figs. 339 and 341 show alternative methods of inserting tho panelling in the framing. Fig. 339 has the panels sprigged into rebates or checks; this is the cabinet-maker's method, and it is easier, but weaker than the joiner's method shown in Fig. 341, which is a section at a (Fig. 337). The glazed door in the upper part should be mortised and tenoned together, the dotted lines in Fig. 338 indicating the size and position of tho tenons. The shoulders are made square, the rebate for the glass being formed by an inserted slip bead, which is mitered round after the fnime is glued and cleaned oil. This bead should l>c ganged to width and glued in. The bars, j in, by ¡J in., are cut square against, the stiles and rails, but aro mitered to each other as shown in Fig. 342. The circular bars may be made in various ways, the beat method being to l>end the bar in tho solid round a shaped drum, splicing the ends as shown in Fig, 342, and working to section after g'uing up. An easier method is shown in the upper part of Fig. 342. Two rings for the bead and for the tongue are turned in the lathe; then a small groove is turned in the back of the bead, and the tongue ring inserted into this, crossing the grain of the two rings as much as possible. A third method is to work each bar in four pieces in the solid, cut them out, and dowel them together with butt joints. Tho door of the lower cupboard, shown in section in Fig. 341 is mortised and tenoned together and solid moulded with a J-in. Grecian ovoln, the
Corner of 8heraton Cabinet.
Fig. 342. Method of Joining Bars of Sheraton Cabinet
panel being rebated in, and finishing flush inside. The upper portions of the two front legs should be square and parallel, as shown in Fig. 341. and ¿-in. slips are glued on for door-stops. The apron rails beneath the cupboard should be framed into the legs, and the cupboard bottom is glued and blocked to them. The back of the glazed cabinet is made of f-in. pine boards, grooved in, and should be covered with purple plush or cloth. The bottom part is left open.
The cabinet illustrated at Fig. 3-44 looks well if made of pine or deal, painted and enamelled white or pale green ; or it may be made of hardwood, such as mahogany or walnut, and french-polished. The cupboard consists of two parts, the lower extending from b to a and the upper from a to c. The upper part is intended for the display of bric-a-brac, the door panel being of clear glass, and underneath the cupboard are two plate-glass mirrors. Before starting the construction, make a full-size plan of the lower part, as in Fig. 345, the top, of course, being omitted. The sides against the wall are 1 ft. 7 in. long, and the breaks d to e 8 in. long, the front being about 1 ft. 4 in.—the exact length can be obtained from the plan. The legs are of 1-in. stuff, ft. long by 2J in. wide. The back leg f shows the thickness of the legs—less in width than the others, to make the joint as shown. The two large shelves, having been got out to the proper size and shape, fthould be cut awav at the angles to receive the legs. Next get out the top. which should be an inch larger all round than the plan. The height from the floor of the bottom shelf is 6 in., and that of the shelf above 1 ft. s in. Mark the positions of these »halves on the legs, and the widths of the shaped span-rails and arches as well. The method ot setting out these rails and arches is shown at Figs. 346 to 349. They must stand I nick J in. from the face of the leas, and must be got out i in. longer than sight measure, to allow for housing them J in. deep into the legs. The next parts to be prepared are the backs from a to g (Fig. 344); these are of the same thickness as the legs, running the same way of the grain, and glued and jointed to the legs. The shelf at g is supported at the back and sides by being screwed from underneath into the back. The inside ends of the curtained recess, indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 345, are glued and jointed to the front legs and backs. Before the legs are finally put together, they must be shaped on the outer edges to the form shown enlarged in Fig. 350. The top is nailed to the legs and shaped span-rails. The top is made to project 1 in. at the back in order to allow the upper part of the cabinet to get close to the wall, otherwise it would not do so, owing to the skirting board that usually runs round the bottom of the wall. Two brass screw eyelets are screwed behind the top centre span-rail, as a support for the wire rod on which the soft silk curtains are hung. The small shelves at h (Fig. 344) are £ in. thick, and are fixed with nails driven through the backs and inside ends.
Upper Part of Corner Cabinet.—For the upper part of the cabinet, make a full-size plan as shown jp Fig. 351, allowing the sides to be 1 ft. 8 in. long and fully J in. thick. The left-hand side of the plan shows a section through the door, and the right-hand side a section through the mirror. The door posts j are 1 ft. 1 in. from the corner, and are got out of lj-in. stuff, bevelled to shape as shown. The extreme height from a to o (Fig. 344) is 3 ft. 6 in.; height from a to the shelf below the door, 11 in.; height from a to the top of the cupboard, 2 ft. 7 in.; door stiles and rails, 2 in. wide, including moulding; height of small corner shelf from the top of the cupboard. 7 in. The small shelves near the mirrors are halves of a 5-in. disc, and are fixed 6 in. from the top ; both shelf tad brachst arc £ in. thick. Enlarged drawings of the shaped parts of fhe back» are given at Figs. 352 and 353. Äach back is jointed to make one piece of the necessary width. To allow the backs to intersect at the corner, one is made the thickness of the stuff less in width than the other. The openings for the mirrors are cut out. a margin of lA in. being allowed for what appear as stiles and rails (see Fig. 351). To form a rebate for the mirrors, which should be of bevelled glass, half-round mouldings are glued and nailed to the face,
Flg. 348. Pattern for Bottom Front Span-rail of Cabinet.
Flf SM. Drawing-room Cora*r Cabin*.
Fig. 34». -Pattern for Bottom Bid* Span-nil of Cabinet, r as shown in the enlarged section at Fig. 354. To protect the glass, a $-in. back K is inserted. The shelf below the door is f in. thick, projecting £ in. from the door and posts. The top of the cupboard is f in. thick, projecting 1 in. from the door and posts (see full lines in Fig. 351). The door posts having been fixed to the backs, the shelf and top may be secured with nails driven through the backs. The door stiles and rails are mortised and tenoned in the usual way. The tracery pattern in the door is made of very thin stuff, such as can be obtained from any dealer in fretwork materials. An enlargement is shown at Fig. 335, half t1« • 1 n being set out in squares fur copying. Aae door is hung with a pair of 2-in. brass butts; a lock may be fitted, or a brass handle as shown. The inside of the cupboard will look well if lined with an art shade of velveteen. As it may be desired to have a door instead of the curtains in the lower part, a design for this is given at Fig. 356. The two sections of the cabinet are fastened together with screws driven from the under side of the top.
The centre cabinet illustrated by Fig. 357 may be made of mahogany, inlaid with satinwood. The various parts should be kept as light as is consistent with strength. Each side is the same in appearance, but one is constructed to open as a door. Such a cabinet may be made of any size to suit requirements; the dimensions of the one shown here are : Height to top shelf, 4 ft. 10 in. ; height to cabinet top, 4 ft. ; and 1 ft. 2 in. to the top edge of the moulding which rests on the legs. The sides of the glazed cabinet are 1 ft. 9 in. wide, and are made independent of the top and lower framing. The first part to be taken in hand is the lower framing. The legs are each 1 ft. 2 in. long, and If in. square at the top, tapering to 1 in. square at the bottom. The span rails a (Fig. 358) are of lj-in. stuff, in. wide, and are tenoned into the legs ; the tenons should be made as long as possible by mitering the ends, as shown in the sectional plan, Fig. 359. The mould-
\ in. from the face of the legs and cabinet; it is glued on the face of the rails and legs, and mitered at the corners. Before finally gluing together, the satinwood stringing on the outside faces of the legs, and the fan pattern at the ends of the rails, must be inlaid.
Top of Centre Cabinet.—The top of the cabinet projects 1J in. all round the carcase. It is of 1-in. stuff, and underneath are strips 3 in. wide by f in. thick, mitered at the corners, these forming the lower member of the moulding, as at o (Fig. 360). These strips are well screwed to the under side of the top. On the upper face of the top is a line of stringing 1J in. from the edge, breaking inwards 1£ in. at the corners (see Fig. 361). In the centre is a fan-shaped patera 6 in. in diameter. This ornament may be obtained from inlayers, or it may be omitted. In inlaying pateras and corner pieces as in the lower rails, the general method is to veneer the surface, after fitting the inlaid portions to the veneer. The inlays are first secured by gluing paper on the face; then the veneer is glued to the face of the wood and held by clamps and a heated caul. As an alternative method, the inlaid portions may be sunk into the solid wood by cutting away the surface to receive the inlay.
Top Shelf and Supports.—The top shelf (see plan, Fig. 362) is of 1-in. stuff, and is 10 in. square ; the moulding worked round its edges is shown by Fig. 363. Lines of satinwood stringing are inlaid on the top face of the shelf, standing in from the edges 1} in., and breaking inwards at the corners 1J in. The shaped pieces (Fig. 364) under the corners of the shelf must be set out full size, so as to get the right shape. To do this, make a full-size plan, as in Fig. 362. Draw on the plan a lj-in. square representing the bottom end of the shaped piece, the outside lines being level with the cabinet carcase ; and the same of the top end, 1 in. square, standing in J in. from the edge of the shelf. Now, allowing 9J in. for the height of the shaped pieces, set out a side elevation as in Fig. 364 ; in this way the exact contour is obtained. To avoid spoiling good wood, it would be well first to make one roughly in pine for a
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